Toyota RAV4 manuals

Toyota Sienna 2010-2023 Owners Manual: Glossary of tire terminology

Tire related term


Cold tire inflation pressure Tire pressure when the vehicle has been parked for three hours or more, or has not been driven more than 1 mile or 1.5 km under that condition
Maximum inflation pressure The maximum cold inflated pressure to which a tire may be inflated, shown on the sidewall of the tire
Recommended inflation pressure Cold tire inflation pressure recommended by a manufacturer
Accessory weight The combined weight (in excess of those standard items which may be replaced) of automatic transmission, power steering, power brakes, power windows, power seats, radio and heater, to the extent that these items are available as factory-installed equipment (whether installed or not)
Curb weight The weight of a motor vehicle with standard equipment, including the maximum capacity of fuel, oil and coolant, and if so equipped, air conditioning and additional weight optional engine
Maximum loaded vehicle weight The sum of:
  1. Curb weight
  2. Accessory weight
  3. Vehicle capacity weight
  4. Production options weight
Normal occupant weight 150 lb. (68 kg) times the number of occupants specified in the second column of Table 1* that follows
Occupant distribution Distribution of occupants in a vehicle as specified in the third column of Table 1* below
Production options weight The combined weight of installed regular production options weighing over 5 lb. (2.3 kg) in excess of the standard items which they replace, not previously considered in curb weight or accessory weight, including heavy duty brakes, ride levelers, roof rack, heavy duty battery, and special trim
Rim A metal support for a tire or a tire and tube assembly upon which the tire beads are seated
Rim diameter (Wheel diameter) Nominal diameter of the bead seat
Rim size designation Rim diameter and width
Rim type designation The industry manufacturer’s designation for a rim by style or code
Rim width Nominal distance between rim flanges
Vehicle capacity weight (Total load capacity) The rated cargo and luggage load plus 150 lb.

(68 kg) times the vehicle’s designated seating capacity

Vehicle maximum load on the tire The load on an individual tire that is determined by distributing to each axle its share of the maximum loaded vehicle weight, and dividing by two
Vehicle normal load on the tire The load on an individual tire that is determined by distributing to each axle its share of curb weight, accessory weight, and normal occupant weight (distributed in accordance with Table 1* below), and dividing by two
Weather side The surface area of the rim not covered by the inflated tire
Bead The part of the tire that is made of steel wires, wrapped or reinforced by ply cords and that is shaped to fit the rim
Bead separation A breakdown of the bond between components in the bead
Bias ply tire A pneumatic tire in which the ply cords that extend to the beads are laid at alternate angles substantially less than 90 degrees to the centerline of the tread
Carcass The tire structure, except tread and sidewall rubber which, when inflated, bears the load
Chunking The breaking away of pieces of the tread or sidewall
Cord The strands forming the plies in the tire
Cord separation The parting of cords from adjacent rubber compounds
Cracking Any parting within the tread, sidewall, or innerliner of the tire extending to cord material
CT A pneumatic tire with an inverted flange tire and rim system in which the rim is designed with rim flanges pointed radially inward and the tire is designed to fit on the underside of the rim in a manner that encloses the rim flanges inside the air cavity of the tire
Extra load tire A tire designed to operate at higher loads and at higher inflation pressures than the corresponding standard tire
Groove The space between two adjacent tread ribs
Innerliner The layer(s) forming the inside surface of a tubeless tire that contains the inflating medium within the tire
Innerliner separation The parting of the innerliner from cord material in the carcass
Intended outboard sidewall
  1. The sidewall that contains a whitewall, bears white lettering, or bears manufacturer, brand, and/or model name molding that is higher or deeper than the same molding on the other sidewall of the tire, or
  2. The outward facing sidewall of an asymmetrical tire that has a particular side that must always face outward when mounted on a vehicle
Light truck (LT) tire A tire designated by its manufacturer as primarily intended for use on lightweight trucks or multipurpose passenger vehicles
Load rating The maximum load that a tire is rated to carry for a given inflation pressure
Maximum load rating The load rating for a tire at the maximum permissible inflation pressure for that tire
Maximum permissible inflation pressure The maximum cold inflation pressure to which a tire may be inflated
Measuring rim The rim on which a tire is fitted for physical dimension requirements
Open splice Any parting at any junction of tread, sidewall, or innerliner that extends to cord material
Outer diameter The overall diameter of an inflated new tire
Overall width The linear distance between the exteriors of the sidewalls of an inflated tire, including elevations due to labeling, decorations, or protective bands or ribs
Passenger car tire A tire intended for use on passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, and trucks, that have a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 10,000 lb. or less
Ply A layer of rubber-coated parallel cords
Ply separation A parting of rubber compound between adjacent plies
Pneumatic tire A mechanical device made of rubber, chemicals, fabric and steel or other materials, that, when mounted on an automotive wheel, provides the traction and contains the gas or fluid that sustains the load
Radial ply tire A pneumatic tire in which the ply cords that extend to the beads are laid at substantially 90 degrees to the centerline of the tread
Reinforced tire A tire designed to operate at higher loads and at higher inflation pressures than the corresponding standard tire
Section width The linear distance between the exteriors of the sidewalls of an inflated tire, excluding elevations due to labeling, decoration, or protective bands
Sidewall That portion of a tire between the tread and bead
Sidewall separation The parting of the rubber compound from the cord material in the sidewall
Snow tire A tire that attains a traction index equal to or greater than 110, compared to the ASTM E- 1136 Standard Reference Test Tire, when using the snow traction test as described in ASTM F-1805-00, Standard Test Method for Single Wheel Driving Traction in a Straight Line on Snow-and Ice-Covered Surfaces, and which is marked with an Alpine Symbol ( )
on at least one sidewall
Test rim The rim on which a tire is fitted for testing, and may be any rim listed as appropriate for use with that tire
Tread That portion of a tire that comes into contact with the road
Tread rib A tread section running circumferentially around a tire
Tread separation Pulling away of the tread from the tire carcass
Treadwear indicators (TWI) The projections within the principal grooves designed to give a visual indication of the degrees of wear of the tread
Wheel-holding fixture The fixture used to hold the wheel and tire assembly securely during testing

*: Table 1 - Occupant loading and distribution for vehicle normal load for various designated seating capacities

Toyota Sienna. Specifications

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